, , , & , Crossing the bridge over norman’s gulf of execution: Revealing feedforward’s true identity, in Wendy E. Mackay, Stephen A. Brewster, & Susanne Bødker (eds.), 2013 ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ‘13, Paris, France, April 27 - May 2, 2013,1931-1940 (ACM ). DOI  PDF


Feedback and affordances are two of the most well-known principles in interaction design. Unfortunately, the related and equally important notion of feedforward has not been given as much consideration. Nevertheless, feedforward is a powerful design principle for bridging Norman's Gulf of Execution. We reframe feedforward by disambiguating it from related design principles such as feedback and perceived affordances, and identify new classes of feedforward. In addition, we present a reference framework that provides a means for designers to explore and recognize different opportunities for feedforward.

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